UDC 636.2/.3:619:578:57.083

doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2014.6.67eng


E.G. Nikitina, N.I. Salnikov, S.A. Katorkin, E.A. Balashova, S.Zh. Tsybanov, D.V. Kolbasov, A.V. Lunitsin

All-Russian Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Pokrov, Petushinskii Region, Vladimir Province, 601120 Russia, e-mail vniivvim@niiv.petush.elcom.ru, lenok.nikitina2010@yandex.ru

Received March 31, 2014

Akabane disease, a transmissible pathology of cattle, sheep and goats, is caused by Simbu serotype virus (Bunyaviridae) and results in significant economical losses due to abortions, unviable and abnormal calves, or dead embryos and calves born. The Akabane disease epizooties, characterized by geographic locations and the coincidence with definite seasons, are widely registered. For preparative accumulation of Akabane virus the 1-2 day mice are used as the most sensitive system for Bunyaviridae isolation. Earlier we reported the development of a test system for Akabane virus RNA indication by real time reverse transcription PCR. Its efficacy was approved using infected mice and cell cultures. Furthermore, it was of interest to estimate this test system with respect to more wide range of model animals to be involved in the study and reproduction of Akabane virus. In this investigation, healthy cavies (n = 20, the animal weight of 400 g) were infected with a concentrated viral culture (B8935 strain) of 7.0 lg lg TCID50/cm3. In blood the Akabane virus RNA was detected in four animals only 4 days after inoculation, but not shown in the rest probes, which were sampled from 2 to 6 days, and one cavy died a day after infection, probably due to nonspecific reaction as the Akabane virus genome was not detected in the post mortem tissue samples of all the organs of the animal tested. After 4 days the Akabane virus RNA was also indicated in brain, lung, kidney, hart and lymphatic gland. Thus, the developed test-system is effective for Akabane disease diagnosis, and the experimentally infected cavies can be the model animals used to study and produce Akabane virus preparations.

Keywords: Akabane disease, Akabane virus, cavies, Culicoides, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR, test-system.


Full article (Rus)

Full text (Eng)



1. Akulov A.V., Apatenko V.M., Arkhipov N.I. et. al. Patologoanatomicheskayadiagnostika boleznei krupnogo rogatogo skota[Anatomopathological diagnostics of cattle diseases]. Moscow, 1987.
2. Balashova E.A. Veterinariya, 2012, 10: 56-57.
3. Khan E.O. Identifikatsiya virusa bolezni Akabane na osnove metodov analiza genoma. Kandidatskaya dissertatsiya [Identification of Akabane disease virus by means of genome analysis. PhD Thesis]. Pokrov, 2013.
4. Metselaar D., Robin Y. Akabane virus isolated in Kenya. Vet. Record., 1976, 99(5): 86 (PMID 982784). CrossRef
5. Murray M.D. Akabane epizootics in New South Wales: evidence for the long-distance dispersal of the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis. Aust. Vet. J., 1987, 64(10): 305-308. CrossRef
6. Syurin V.N., Samuilenko A.Ya., Solov'ev B.V., Fomina N.V. Virusnye bolezni zhivotnykh [Viral diseases if animals]. Moscow, 1998.
7. Matumoto M., Inaba Y. Akabane disease and Akabane virus. Kitasato Arch. Exp. Med., 1980, 53(1-2): 1-21 (PMID 6792415).
8. Doherty R.L., Carley J.G., Standfast H.A., Dyce A.L., Snowdon W.A. Virus strains isolated from arthropods during an epizootic of bovine ephemeral  fever  in  Queensland. Aust. Vet. J., 1972, 48(3): 81-86. CrossRef
9. Omori T., Inaba Y., Kurogi H. et al. Viral abortion, arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle in Japan, 1972-1974. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 1974, 81: 447-458.
10. St George T.D., Cybinski D.H., Paull N.I. The isolation of Akabane virus from a normal bull. Aust. Vet. J., 1977, 53(5): 249 (PMID 901328).
11. Oem J.K., Lee K.H., Kim H.R., Bae Y.C., Chung J.Y., Lee O.S., Roh I.S. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus infection in Korea. J. Comp. Pathol., 2012, 147(2-3): 101-105. Epub 2012 Apr 19. CrossRef
12. Jun Q., Qingling M., Zaichao Z., Kuojun C., Jingsheng Z., Minxing M., Chuangfu C. A serological survey of Akabane virus infection in cattle and sheep in northwest China. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 2012, 44(8): 1817-1820. Epub 2012 May 12. CrossRef
13. Elhassan A.M., Mansour M.E., Shamon A.A., El Hussein A.M. A serological survey of Akabane virus infection in cattle in Sudan. ISRN Vet Sci., 2014 (Jan 21): 123904. CrossRef
14. Oem J.K., Yoon H.J., Kim H.R., Roh I.S., Lee K.H., Lee O.S., Bae Y.C. Genetic and pathogenic characterization of Akabane viruses isolated from cattle with encephalomyelitis in Korea. Vet. Microbiol., 2012, 158(3-4): 259-266. Epub 2012 Mar 1. CrossRef
15. Oem J.K., Kim Y.H., Kim S.H., Lee M.H., Lee K.K. Serological characteristics of affected cattle during an outbreak of bovine enzootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 2014, 46(1): 261-263. Epub 2013 Nov 16. CrossRef
16. Tsutsui T., Yamamoto T., Hayama Y., Akiba Y., Nishiguchi A., Kobayashi S., Yamakawa M. Duration of maternally derived antibodies against Akabane virus in calves: survival analysis. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2009, 71(7): 913-918. CrossRef
17. Kim Y.H., Kweon C.H., Tark D.S., Lim S.I., Yang D.K., Hyun B.H., Song J.Y., Hur W., Park S.C. Development of inactivated trivalent vaccine for the teratogenic Aino, Akabane and Chuzan viruses. Biologicals, 2011, 39(3): 152-157 (doi: 10.1016/j.biologicals.2011.02.004). Epub 2011 Mar 21.
18. Hechinger S., Wernike K., Beer M. Evaluating the protective efficacy of a trivalent vaccine containing Akabane virus, Aino virus and Chuzan virus against Schmallenberg virus infection. Vet. Res., 2013, 44: 114. CrossRef
19. Qiao J., Wang J., Meng Q., Wang G., Liu Y., He Z., Yang H., Zhang Z., Cai X., Chen C. Rapid detection of Akabane virus by a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP). Virol. J., 2013, 10: 288. CrossRef
20. Kittelberger R., McFadden A.M., Kirkland P.D., Hannah M.J., Orr D., Bueno R., Swainsbury R., Keen D., Jenner J., French J., Pigott C.J. Evaluation of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for the detection of serum antibodies against Akabane virus in cattle. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 2013, 25(5): 645-648. Epub 2013 Aug 13. CrossRef
21. Balashova E.A. Razrabotka sredstv i metodov laboratornoi diagnostiki bolezni Akabane. Kandidatskaya dissertatsiya [Development of facilities and methods for laboratory diagnostics of Akabane disease. PhD Thesis. Pokrov, 1993]. Pokrov, 1993.
22. Zhabon E.O., Sal'nikov N.I., Balashova E.A., Selyaninov Yu.O. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii «Molekulyarnaya diagnostika-2010» [Proc. Int. Conf. «Molecular diagnostics-2010». V. 2]. Moscow, 2010, tom 2: 97-99.
23. Kolbasov D.V., Tsybanov S.Zh., Selyaninov Yu.O., Balashova E.A., Zha-
bon E.O., Sal'nikov N.I. Metodicheskie polozheniya po vyyavleniyu RNK virusa bolezni Akabane metodom  polimeraznoi tsepnoi reaktsii [Methodical guidance on detection of Akabane disease virus RNA by PCR analysis]. Pokrov, 2011.
24. Syurin V.N., Belousova R.V., Solov'ev B.V., Fomina N.V. Metody laboratornoi diagnostiki virusnykh boleznei zhivotnykh [Laboratory diagnostics of viral diseases of animals]. Moscow, 1986.