doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2016.5.602eng

UDC 633.52:631.52:[573.6.086.83+577.21]



I.V. Ushchapovskii1, V.V. Lemesh2, M.V. Bogdanova2, E.V. Guzenko2

1All-Russian Research Institute for Mechanization of Flax Cultivation, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations,17/56, Komsomol’skii prosp., Tver, 170041 Russia,
2Institute of Genetics and Cytology of NAS of Belarus, 27, vul. Akademicheskaya, Minsk, 220072 Republic of Belarus,

Received November 27, 2015


Breeding and genetic researches of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) started more than 100 years ago, but their relevance does not decrease. More than 200 cultivars of this culture are offered in the international seed market for oil and fiber production with yearly amount of the harvested area about one million hectares and 0.3 million hectares, respectively. Different agro-climatic conditions in the countries, which flax has been cultivated, and the progress in technologies of processing and new ways of application of products made of the fibers and other parts of the flax plant determine the necessity to accelerate breeding process. Now duration of breeding work for creating a new variety is up to 10-15 years. The dominating method for flax breeding is intraspecific hybridization with the subsequent selections. Basic part of breeding work is ecological trials and intensive use in the crossing the best new cultivars, old popular varieties («kriazhee»), local samples and breeding forms (S.N. Kutuzova et al., 2010; A. Diedrechsen et al., 2013). Prebreeding work focuses on the overcoming of limits of traditional hybridization methods by using some peculiarities of combinative variability (L.N. Pavlova, 2010). Recombination inducing can be resulted by using the stress conditions for a flax plant (hybrid) growing (A.A. Zhuchenko Jr. et al., 2009). Use physical (γ-radiation) and chemical (nitrosomethylurea, ethyleneimine, dimethylsulphate) mutagens considerably raises an output of mutant forms of linseed and flaxseed which possess economically valuable traits (M.I. Loginov et al., 2005; I.V. Uschapovsky, 2013). The article examines the examples of the use of cell and tissue culture techniques that extend somaclonal variability and allow to produce flax lines with desirable properties, including disease-resistance (fusariosis, anthracnose) (V.A. Lyakh et al., 2008; N.V. Proletova et al., 2010). The review describes DNA marking technology which allows us to group genetic material of flax according to its genetic proximity and to optimize matching the genotypes to crossbreeding in view of saving the maximum genetic diversity (Y.B. Fu et al., 2003; V.A. Lemesh, et al., 2006). SSR-analysis is examined as the perspective direction for genetic identification of flax lines and cultivars (V.A. Lemesh et al., 2013), identifications of inter- and intraspecific genetic linkages (J. Vromans, 2006), possible linkages between molecular markers and economically important traits (V.A. Lemesh et al., 2012) and establishments of linkages groups between marker pairs (S. Cloutier, 2012). The directions of possible integration of traditional breeding methods and methods of molecular biology for creation of new flax cultivars with the set of the parameters of economically important traits are considered.

Keywords: fiber flax, linseed, breeding, hybridization, selection, mutagenesis, tissue culture, genetic variability, primers, markers, SSR, PCR.


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