doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2016.5.627eng

UDC 633.11:575.1:631.527(571.12)



V.V. Novokhatin

Research Institute of Agriculture for Northern Zayral’e, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations, 2, ul. Burlaki, pos. Moskovskii, Tyumen Region, Tyumen Province, 625501 Russia,

Received October 8, 2015


Wheat, a hexaploid originated in Anterior (N.I. Vavilov, 1926) and the Central Asia (P.M. Zhukovsky, 1971), was widely spread and grown beyond the Fertile Crescent northerly and southerly. In this, cold resistant wheat and drought resistant spring forms have been originated in the course of unconscious selection (N.I. Vavilov, 1926; Qing-Ming Sun, et al., 2009), and nowadays bread wheat is a dominant cereals cultivated worldwide (N.P. Goncharov, 2013). Analysis of origin of the soft wheat intensive breeds shows that more than 150 years, they were formed on the basis of the genetic material the secondary (P.A. Gepts, 2002; G.M. Paulsen, J.P. Shroyer, 2008), induced the peripheral centers with huge potential (R. Vencovsky, J. Crossa, 2003; S. Cox, 2009). Akagomughi, a short-strawed Japanese variety became the basis of intensive selection (N.I. Vavilov, 1987). A successful combination of genetic associations in derivatives of Hungarian (Banatka), Russian (Krymka), local Galician, English squarehead wheat and Chinese dwarfish wheat made it possible to create a high-yielding, adaptive intensive winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1.It was widely involved in the breeding for intensive yield production resulting in the best intensive high-yielding varieties of winter soft wheat. In the 1970s, these varieties were used to produce new spring wheat intensive varieties, such as winter-and-spring wheat Kazakhstanskaya 10 and spring variety Ikar. Note that the use of vernalized seeds of winter wheat for hybridization is not desirable because of temperature-induced mutations reducing the genetic value of the original forms. In crossing winter crops with spring crops it is necessary to allow them to pass flowering phase simultaneously (V.V. Novohatin et al., 2014). Discrete inheritance in each variety leads to certain changes in its biological, morphological, physiological and bio-climatic properties reflecting evolutionary direction in plant breeding. For example, Kazakhstanskaya 10, created by hybridization of 39 varieties of which 23 one were winter wheat varieties possesses a well-developed, deep penetrating root system (243 cm), is tolerant to salinization, pre-harvest sprouting and fusariosis. Its potential yield under irrigation is 8.02 t/ha. The variety is common in Central Asia and the south-east Kazakhstan, Bashkortostan, Kurgan and Tyumen regions. The variety Kazakhstanskaya 10 is involved  in many breeding programs. As a result, a middle-ripening, medium-height, resistant to lodging and pre-harvest sprouting, intensive Ikar variety (winter wheat Bogarnaya 56 × Kazakhstanskaya 10) (Pyrotrix) been created which genealogy includes 59 varieties of different ecological origin. Its distinctive features (the pubescence and dark-colored ears) contribute to the accelerated maturation of the grain, which is very important for Siberia and Trans-Ural Region. Data on full genealogy of created varieties allows us to control the hybridization of parental pairs when creating the desired genotypes and ecotypes.

Keywords: wheat, environment, gеnome, population, breeding, variety, area, primary and secondary centers, mutations, hybridization, transgressions, evolution.


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