doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2016.5.673eng

UDC 633.72:58.032.3:631.8



L.S. Malyukova, Z.V. Pritula, N.V. Kozlova, V.V. Kerimzade, A.V. Velikii

All-Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations,2/28, ul. Yana Fabriciusa, Sochi, 354002 Russia,

Received July 19, 2016


In the conditions of Russian Black Sea coast and in many other regions of the world (China, India) tea plant is faced with seasonal water shortages leading to a significant loss of productivity — according to different authors, up to 40-50 % (M. Mukhopadhyay et al., 2014; L.S. Malyukova, 2014). In this regard, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of tea plant resistance to water shortages as well as the effectiveness of various exogenous inducers are being researched; more drought-resistant cultivars are being searched for the breeding. Considerable interest in research is related to the study of application of exogenous calcium, which is a mediator in signaling within the cell when there is a synthesis of stress proteins, which, in turn, provide the resistance to adverse environmental factors, as well as the subsequent exit from this state (X.Y. Gao et al., 1999; M.Y. Shu et al, 2000). The papers showed calcium effect on reducing oxidative damage in various plants (including tea plant) at drought by inducing antioxidant system (X.Y. Gao et al., 1999; M. Lee et al, 2004; S.S. Medvedev, 2005; H. Upadhyaya et al., 2012; E.G. Rikhvanov et al., 2014). In Russia, it is the first time when in a field experiment we studied an effect of root fertilization with calcium on the functional state of tea plants and the mode of their nutrition at low water supply. Calcium was introduced into the soil in the form of a natural fertilizer (clay and lime matter containing 40 % of CaO) at 100 kg CaO per ha along with macronutrients (N240P70K90) against solely N240P70K90 in control. During summer periods of high moisture deficit (late July to August) we studied the dynamics of catalase activity in mature leaves and 3-leaf fleshes, pH of the cell sap, water supply and water loss, as well as chemical composition of plants and soil. It was found that under the influence of calcium in the stressful period there were an increase in catalase activity in mature leaves (by 10-19 ml of O2/g within 3 min at different periods), a reduction of water loss (on average by 20 %), a lesser alkalescency of the cell sap (by 0.05-0.07 units), and a significant (by 27-33 %) increase in plant productivity, which indicates more stable functional state both during water stress and rehydration. Catalase activity in shoots (to a lesser extent in mature leaves) correlated with the pH of the cell sap (r = 0.93 and r = 0.53, respectively), which determined its important role in the formation of tea plant oxidative state. More adapted restructuring of the plants to extreme conditions and their subsequent effective recovery was due to the effect of calcium fertilizers on the cation-exchange capacity of soil absorbing complex, i.e. 1.5-3-fold enhancing the calcium exchange, while maintaining the potassium status and subsequent coordinated absorption of major biogenic nutrient elements, which provides preferential flow of potassium and calcium in plants as compared to nitrogen and phosphorus.

Keywords: tea plant, Samellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, drought resistance, calcium, mineral fertilizers, enzyme activity, water loss, pH of the cell sap, agrochemical properties of soils, chemical composition of leaves.


Full article (Rus)

Full text (Eng)



  1. Bhagat R.M., Deb Baruah R., Cacique S. Climate and tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] production with special reference to north eastern India: a review. Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 2010, 4(4): 1017-1028.
  2. Baruahl R.D., Bhagat R.M. Climate trends of Northeastern India: a long term pragmatic analysis for tea production. Two and a Bud, 2012, 59(2): 46-49.
  3. Upadhyaya H., Panda S.K. Abiotic stress responses in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]: An overview. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 2013, 1: 1-10 CrossRef
  4. Mukhopadhyay M., Mondal T.K. The physio-chemical responses of Camellia plants to abiotic stresses. J. Plant Sci., 2014, 1: 1-12.
  5. Malyukova L.S. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii, 2014, 38(1): 255-261 (in Russ.).
  6. Damayanthi M.M.N., Mohotti1 A.J., Nissanka S.P. Comparison of tolerant ability of nature field grown tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars exposed to a drought stress in Passara Area. Tropical Agricultural Research, 2010, 22(1): 66-75 CrossRef
  7. Upadhyaya H., Dutta B.K., Sahoo L., Panda S.K. Comparative effect of Ca, K, Mn and B on post-drought stress recovery in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. Am. J. Plant Sci., 2012, 3: 443-460 CrossRef
  8. Waheed A., Hamid F.S., Shah A.H., Ahmad H., Khalid A., Abbasi F.M., Ahmad N., Aslam S., Sarwar S. Response of different tea (Camellia sinensis L.) clones against drought stress. J. Master Environ. Sci., 2012, 3: 395-410.
  9. Upadhyaya H., Panda S.K., Dutta B.K. CaCl2 improves post-drought recovery potential in Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze. Plant Cell Rep., 2011, 30: 495-503 CrossRef
  10. Mukhopadhyay M., Ghosh P.D., Mondal T.K. Effect of boron deficiency on photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of young tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] plantlets. Russ. J. Plant Physiol., 2013, 60: 633-639.
  11. Pritula Z.V., Abil'fazova Yu.S. Subtropicheskoe i dekorativnoe sadovodstvo, 2004, 39(2): 427-440 (in Russ.).
  12. Belous O.G. Mikroelementy na chainykh plantatsiyakh subtropikov Rossii [Microelements in the soils of tea plantation of Russian subtropics]. Krasnodar, 2006 (in Russ.).
  13. Nen'ko N.I., Sergeeva N.N., Karavaeva A.V. Plodovodstvo i vinogradarstvo Yuga Rossii, 2015, 35(5): 83-94 (in Russ.).
  14. Gao X.Y., Yang G.P., Xu Z.Q., Xu F.C. Effect of calcium on antioxidant enzymes of lipid peroxidation of soy-bean leaves under water stress. J. South China Agric. Univ., 1999, 2: 58-62.
  15. Shu M.Y., Fan M.Q. Effect of osmotic stress and calcium on membrane-lipid peroxidation and the activity of defense enzymes in fir seedling. Forest Res., 2000, 4: 391-396.
  16. Bowler C., Fluhr B. The role of calcium and activated oxygen as signals for controlling cross-tolerance. Trends Plant Sci., 2000, 5: 241-243.
  17. Li M., Van G., Lin Ts. Fiziologiya rastenii, 2004, 51(4): 575-581 (in Russ.).
  18. Medvedev S.S. Fiziologiya rastenii, 2005, 52(2): 282-305 (in Russ.).
  19. Kim M.C. Calcium and calmodulin-mediated regulation of gene expression in plant. Mol. Plant, 2009, 2: 13-21 CrossRef
  20. Spalding E.P., Harper J.F. The ins and outs of cellular Ca2+ transport. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2011, 14: 715-720 CrossRef
  21. Olson M.L., Chaimers S., McCarron J.G., Mitochondrial organization and Ca2+ up take. Biochemical Society Transactions, 2012, 40: 158-167 CrossRef
  22. Liu H.T., Sun D.Y., Zhou R.G. Ca2+ and AtCaM3 are involved in the expression of heat shock protein gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environ., 2005, 28: 1276-1284 CrossRef
  23. Saidi Y., Finka A., Muriset M., Bromberg Z., Weiss Y.G., Maathuis F.J., Goloubinoff P. The heat shock response in moss plants is regulated by specific calcium-permeable channels in the plasma membrane. Plant Cell, 2009, 21: 2829-2843 CrossRef
  24. Saidi Y., Finka A., Goloubinoff P. Heat perception and signaling in plants: a tortuous path to thermotolerance. New Phytol., 2011, 190: 556-565 CrossRef
  25. Rikhvanov E.G., Fedoseeva I.V., Pyatrikas D.V., Borovskii G.B., Voinikov V.K. Fiziologiya rastenii, 2014, 61(2): 155-169 (in Russ.).
  26. Ryndin A.V., Belous O.G., Malyarovskaya V.I., Pritula Z.V., Abilfazova Yu.S., Kozhevnikova A.M. Physiological and biochemical approaches in studing adaptation mechanisms of subtropical, fruit and ornamental crops grown in Russian subtropics. Agricultural Biology, 2014, 3: 40-48 CrossRef (in Engl.)
  27. Praktikum po fiziologii rastenii /Pod. redaktsiei I.I. Gunara [Practical text-book on plant physiology. I.I. Gunar (ed.)]. Moscow, 1972 (in Russ.).
  28. Filippov L.A. Vodnyi rezhim i oroshenie plodovykh i subtropicheskikh kul'tur v gornykh usloviyakh (trudy NIIGSiTS), 1975, 21: 102-122 (in Russ.).
  29. Kormilitsyn A.M., Marchenko N.G. Trudy Nikitskogo botanicheskogo sada, 1960, XXXII: 55-60 (in Russ.).
  30. Ginzburg K.E. Pochvovedenie, 1963, 5: 89-96 (in Russ.).
  31. Agrokhimicheskie metody issledovaniya pochv. Metodika /Otvetstvennyi redaktor A.V. Sokolov [Agrochemical analysis of soils — methods. A.V. Sokolov (ed.)]. Moscow, 1975.
  32. Srapenyats R.A., Novikov A.I., Strebkov I.M., Shapiro L.Z., Kirikoi Ya.T. Vestnik sel'skokhozyaistvennykh nauk, 1980, 12: 34-44 (in Russ.).
  33. Apel K., Hirt H. Reactive oxygen species metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Plant Soil, 2004, 55: 373-399 CrossRef
  34. Belous O.G. Aktivnost' katalazy v list'yakh chaya v zone vlazhnykh subtropikov Rossii [Catalase activity in leaves of tea plants under conditions of Russian humid subtropical area]. Saarbruchen, 2012 (in Russ.).
  35. Koshkin E.I. Fiziologiya ustoichivosti sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur [Physiology of crop tolerance]. Moscow, 2010 (in Russ.).
  36. Bach M., Schnitzler J.P., Seitz H.U. Elicitor-induced changes in Ca2+ influx, K+ enflux and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid synthesis in protoplasts of Daucus carota L. Plant Physiol., 1993, 103: 407-412.
  37. Zyalalov A.A., Gazizov I.S. Fiziologiya rastenii, 1989, 36(5): 880-887 (in Russ.).