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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.4.631eng

UDC: 636.2:636.082.12

Acknowledgements:
Supported financially by the Russian Science Foundation within Project No. 19-76-20012

 

ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES: DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH OF ALLELE POOL OF RUSSIAN CATTLE BREEDS – MINIREVIEW

N.A. Zinovieva1, A.A. Sermyagin1, A.V. Dotsev1,
O.I. Boronetslaya2, L.V. Petrikeeva2,
A.S. Abdelmanova1, G. Brem1, 3

1Ernst Federal Science Center for Animal Husbandry, 60, pos. Dubrovitsy, Podolsk District, Moscow Province, 142132 Russia, e-mail n_zinovieva@mail.ru (✉ corresponding author), alex_sermyagin85@mail.ru, asnd@mail.ru, preevetic@mail.ru;
2Timiryazev Russian State Agrarian University—Moscow Agrarian Academy, 49, ul. Timiryazevskaya, Moscow, 127550 Russia, e-mail liskun@rgau-msha.ru, ulreeka@gmail.com;
3Institut für Tierzucht und Genetik, University of Veterinary Medicine (VMU), Veterinärplatz, A-1210, Vienna, Austria, e-mail gottfried.brem@agrobiogen.de

ORCID:
Zinovieva N.A. orcid.org/0000-0003-4017-6863
Boronetslaya O.I. orcid.org/0000-0001-8389-5572
Sermyagin A.A. orcid.org/0000-0002-1799-6014
Petrikeeva L.V. orcid.org/0000-0001-9663-7978
Dotsev A.V. orcid.org/0000-0003-3418-2511
Brem G. orcid.org/0000-0002-7522-0708
Abdelmanova A.S. orcid.org/0000-0003-4752-0727

Received March 7, 2019

 

In modern biological science, the study and conservation of biodiversity is considered as one of the important field of research (L.F. Groeneveld et al., 2010). In the twentieth century, only a limited number of breeds was used in animal husbandry worldwide, which led to a significant decrease in the number of local breeds, which until recently were actively involved in agricultural production (B. Rischkowsky et al., 2007). This review describes the current state of knowledge in research of the gene pool of cattle, with special attention paid to Russian genetic resources. The evolution of methods used for the studies of genetic diversity is briefly described. The results of studies of allele pool of cattle breeds based on analysis of polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites are summarized (M.-H. Li et al., 2009; J. Kantanen et al., 2009; P.V. Gorelov et al., 2011; T.Yu. Kiseleva et al., 2014; A.A. Traspov et al., 2011; R. Sharma 2015). The advantages of using single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNP) at genome-wide level to study the population structure and genetic relationships between breeds are discussed (R. Fries et al., 2001; R. Martinez-Arias et al., 2001; C. Xing et al., 2005). Data on the divergence of breeds based on the analysis of their whole-genome SNP genotypes are presented (J.E. Decker et al., 2009; L.A. Kuehn et al., 2011; E.J. Mctavish et al., 2013; J.E. Decker et al., 2014; J.E. Decker et al., 2016; T. Iso-Touru et al., 2016). The allele pool of modern populations of the Russian cattle breeds is characterized (N.A. Zinovieva et al., 2016; A. Yurchenko et al., 2018; A.A. Sermyagin et al., 2018). In comparative studies of Eurasian taurine breeds, the high genetic divergence of Yakut cattle was detected. The review shows the maintenance of the significant part of authentic genetic components in the several Russian breeds (Kholmogor, Yaroslavl, Red Gorbatov), which allows us to consider them as the most valuable national genetic resources and confirms the need for a more in-depth studies and preservation of these breeds. It is noted that the use of even such a powerful tool as the analysis of multiple SNPs does not always allow unambiguous interpretation of the results from the point of view of the demographic history of Russian breeds. This is due to significant changes in the allele pool of modern populations of both Russian breeds and breeds that presumably took part in their formation. The informative power of results obtained in the study of the evolution of breeds using molecular genetic methods can be substantially enhanced by involvement in research of the historical DNA samples, such as bone material from the cranial and osteological collections (O.I. Boronetska et al., 2017). Currently, methods have been developed to obtain DNA, which are suitable for a wide range of molecular genetic studies of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including analysis at the level of individual genes, and complete genomes (D.E. McHugh et al., 2000; A. Beja-Pereira et al., 2006; M. Gargani et al., 2015). Involvement the historical samples in the studies will provide new data on the evolution of allele pool of the Russian breeds and clarify the origin of modern populations. The results of such studies will be used in the developing the programs for the conservation of breeds, as well as in establishing the organic production systems based on the use of local genetic resources.

Keywords: biodiversity, Russian cattle breeds, DNA markers, historical DNA samples.

 

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