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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.4.787eng

UDC: 636.2:591.132:636.084.41

 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COMPLETE MIXED DIET DIGESTION IN COMPLEX STOMACH OF RUMINANTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CATTLE (Bos taurus taurus)

N.V. Vasilevskiy, T.A. Yeletskaya

Institute of Animal Science of National academy of agrarian sciences
of Ukraine
, 3, vul. 7-i Gvardeiskoi Armii, Kharkov, 61120 Ukraine, e-mail vasilevskii.n@mail.ru (✉ corresponding author), eletskatat@zandex.ru

ORCID:
Vasilevskiy N.V. orcid.org/0000-0002-7437-2910
Yeletskaya T.A. orcid.org/0000-0001-8980-6972

Received March 22, 2019

 

Modern systems of normalized cattle feeding are based on the position that different feeding technologies do not affect the processes of digestion and absorption of nutrients of the same diet. In our studies, data were obtained for the first time, indicating changes in the parameters of the ration digestion process in the complex stomach of cattle, depending on the method of feeding: separate delivery of separate feeds and simultaneous delivery by the form of the Total Mixed Ration (TMR). To determine mechanisms of increasing feed dry matter intake in cattle when they were switched to Total Mixed Ration feeding, daily flux rates of chyme, its chemical composition and digestibility of main nutrient groups in the compound stomach of young cattle were studied. A Latin square design experiment was carried out using two diets differing in the forage fodder to concentrated fodder ratio and two methods of feeding (separate distribution of feed and in the form of TMR) by the method of periods with two Ukrainian red-motley bulls (Bos taurus taurus) of 300 kg live weight, with a sluice T-shaped duodenal canula. As a result of switching to the TMR feeding, both the nature of chyme influx to the duodenum and nutrient digestibility in the complex stomach were found to change. For 1 hour, the volume of chyme during TMR feeding increased by 417±71 ml/h as compared to separate high concentrate diet feeding, while compared with low concentrate feeding, it increased by 221±81 ml/h, or by 14.42 % and 8.36 %, respectively (p < 0.001). TMR increased Ca, P and total mineral residue influx to the duodenum (by 5.9 %, 10.1 and 8.5 %, respectively). At that, the increase in Ca with the first diet and in general ash with the second one was established at a level of trend, whereas for all the others the increase was significant (р < 0.05). This fact as well as the observed tendency to a change in the Ca and P concentrations in the duodenal chyme composition suggest an increase in the outflow of chyme from the rumen caused by both increased salivation and consumption of water by the animals. The feeding of animals with the TMR was shown to cause multidirectional changes in digestibility of all nutrients: digestibility of raw fat and crude protein decreased in both diets (by 39.6 % and 27.5 %, respectively), while digestibility of crude fiber increased (by 6.9 %); digestibility of nitrogen-free extractives did not change significantly in the first diet, whereas it tended to decrease in the second one so that the total digestibility of the dry and organic matter of the diet changed insignificantly. Raw fiber should be considered as an integral marker for assessing the TMR effect for rumen’s digestion, since it is only digested in the rumen and is not synthesized by the microflora. Due to this, the increase in the chyme flow that we established, when we changed feeding method in the same type of diet, can reduce fiber digestibility due to accelerated outflow of rumen’s content with small particles, whereas with the other type of diet, on the contrary, can increase digestion due to improvement of fermentation conditions.

Keywords: Ukrainian red-motley cattle, digestion, chyme volume, fiber, total mixed ration.

 

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