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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.4.832eng

UDC: 633.2:581.1:54.027:631.4

 

137Cs REMOVAL FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL BY PERENNIAL BLUEGRASS HERBS DEPENDING ON MINERAL NUTRITION AND SOIL WATER AVAILABILITY

S.M. Pakshina1, V.F. Shapovalov1, S.F. Chesalin1,
E.V. Smolskiy1, V.B. Korenev2

1Bryansk State Agrarian University, 2а, ul. Sovetskaya, p. Kokino, Vygonicheskii Region, Bryansk Province, 243365 Russia, e-mail pakshina_s_m@mail.ru (✉ corresponding author), sch.vf@yandex.ru, chesalinsf@icloud.com, sev_84@mail.ru;
2Novozybkovskaya Agricultural Experimental Station — Brunch of Federal Williams Research Center for Fodder Production and Agroecology, 6, Experimental Station, Novozybkov,Bryansk Province, 243020 Russia, e-mail korenevvb@yandex.ru

ORCID:
Pakshina S.M. orcid.org/0000-0002-4911-4653
Smolskiy E.V. orcid.org/0000-0002-7534-5893
Shapovalov V.F. orcid.org/0000-0003-2050-7768
Korenev V.B. orcid.org/0000-0003-1272-6469
Chesalin S.F. orcid.org/0000-0001-5668-2301

Received July 15, 2018

 

The expansion of zones of anthropogenically affected agricultural lands and soil pollution pose a serious environmental threat. Radionuclides with long half-lives of fallout from the anthropogenic nuclear disasters are among the most dangerous pollutants. At present, the world scientific literature has accumulated extensive data on the effect of ameliorants, organic and mineral fertilizers on the yield and biological removal of 137Cs from the soil by crops. This paper is our first report on the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on 137Cs migration from the contaminated soil to bluegrass forage plants many years following the Chernobyl accident (South-West of the Bryansk region, 2009-2011). Our subjective was to study 137Cs removal from the soil depending on plant species and doses of full fertilizers. The soil of the site was alluvial meadow sandy, with pHKCl = 5.2-5.6, 3.08-3.33 % humus, 620-840 mg/kg mobile phosphorus, 133-180 mg/kg exchangeable potassium, and 137Cs contamination of 493-872 kBq/m2. Effects of N90P60K90, N90P60K120, N90P60K150, N120P60K120, N120P60K150, and N120P60K80 used as ammonium nitrate, granulated superphosphate, and potassium chloride on monospecies crops of perennial bluegrasses Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca pratensis Huds.,and Phalaroides arundinacea L. were compared. Fertilizers were used annually, with N and K applied in equal amounts at the first and second mowing and P full dose applied at the first mowing and P full dose applied at the first mowing. The period of vegetation in 2010 was characterized by increased radiation balance. In 2011, bioclimatic conditions were optimal for plant growth and development. The period between the first and the second mowing differed from that before the first mowing in the increased radiation balance and evaporability. The deficiency of soil moisture during the time from beginning of plant growth to the first mowing did not affect water supply of plants because of close groundwater after periodic flooding of the plain. We determined transpiration, transpiration coefficient, a relative transpiration, the rate of decrease in 137Cs specific activity of the biomass, intensity of 137Cs removal from the soil to justify an inverse relationship of 137Cs specific activity in the biomass from a dose of full mineral fertilizer. It has been shown that the intensity of 137Cs bio-removal depends on a dose of full mineral fertilizer. The intensity of 137Cs removal is the smallest in Dactylis glomerata and the greatest in Phalaroides arundinacea. The main mechanism of biological removing 137Cs from the soil is relative transpiration which determines the availability of soil moisture for plant roots and Pe value reflecting the ratio of diffusion and convection in the moisture flow. The relationship between Pe and relative transpiration in the three studied bluegrass species is high (r = 0.8-0.9). We propose the equation of 137Cs bio-removal by perennial bluegrass with the use of mineral fertilizers, which expresses essential pattern of 137Cs activity in the biomass as influenced by the fertilizers and is fair for the studied species of bluegrass herbs.

Keywords: alluvial meadow sandy soil, 137Cs, removal rate, perennial bluegrass herbs, transpiration, relative transpiration, NPK fertilizers.

 

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