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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.4.655eng

UDC: 636.033/.034:636.082/.083:575.1

 

PRODUCTIVE LONGEVITY OF ANIMALS, METHODS OF ITS PREDICTION AND EXTENSION (review)

V.A. Bekenev

Siberian Federal Scientific Center of Agro-BioTechnologies RAS, Siberian Research and Technological Institute of Animal Husbandry, PO box 463, r.p. Krasnoobsk, Novosibirskii Region, Novosibirsk Province, 630501 Russia, e-mail bekenev@ngs.ru (✉ corresponding author), sibniptij@ngs.ru

ORCID:
Bekenev V.A. orcid.org/0000-0003-4663-2217

Received July 23, 2018

 

Lengthening the terms of the productive use of animals is the most important problem in the cultivation of dairy and dairy and beef cattle, pig breeding and other branches of animal husbandry. The aim of this work was to review the influence of various genotypic and paratypic factors on life expectancy, productive longevity of farm animals, as well as analysis of studies to find modern ways of predicting and prolonging them. It was shown that with an increase in milk yield for lactation from 2500-3000 kg to 10000 kg of milk, the duration of productive use of cows decreases from 7-9 to 2-3 lactations, which increases the cost of milk production (I.I. Klimenok et al., 2001; J.R. Wright et al., 2016 et al.). An increase in milk productivity is accompanied by a decrease in reproductive function: the service period is prolonged, animal fertility decreases due to stress resulting from activation of the lactational dominant (A.I. Abilov et al., 2013; Y.S. Schuermann et al., 2016, etc.) To improve reproductive functions, duration of use, it is recommended to use special mineral-vitamin supplements (L.V. Romanenko et al., 2014; B. Close, 2007). Animal welfare is considered as an indicator of the stability of the system and is considered economically profitable (P.A. Oltenacu et al., 2010; L.V. Efimova et al., 2017). The duration of the productive use of sows, depending on the number of farrowing during use, fertility, survival of piglets and other factors is 3-4 farrowing instead of 4.5 in accordance with the accepted norm, which also affects economic indicators (M.D. Hoge et al., 2011). The indicators of heritability of signs of longevity in cattle and pigs are given (L. Canario et al., 2006), various feeding methods, breeding techniques, including the use of genetic markers to lengthen the economic use of animals. (C.N. Lopes et al., 2011; A.I. Sironen et al., 2010 et al.). Molecular markers related to the reproductive characteristics and duration of use of animals are given, which should also be used in genomic selection (N.S. Yudin et al., 2015; Q. Zhang et al., 2017). The theoretical provisions on the causes of aging, the influence of various stressors arising as a result of peroxide and antioxidant processes in the body are considered (E.S. Bauer, 1935; V.L. Voeikov, 2002).The role of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and antioxidants of different nature on the reproductive function and viability of animals under stressful effects of different strengths is discussed (D.D. Boler et al., 2012; M. Sajeda Eidan, 2016). Thus, to increase the duration of the use and longevity of farm animals, combined with high productivity and adaptability to various, including adverse environmental factors, methods should be used that add up to several positions. It is necessary to develop and use proper feeding techniques that optimize the energy balance during all periods of the reproductive cycle, create favorable conditions for keeping animals, providing for exposure to certain stimulating factors that increase the biophysical potential of the body, affecting the functioning of biochemical systems. One should use the latest methods for predicting the level of free-radical oxidation of animal tissue lipids, which affect the manifestation of oestrus, oocyte and sperm viability, and the use of antioxidants with feed additives to balance oxidative and antioxidative processes. One more approach is to create herds (breeds, types) of animals with a high genetic potential for productivity and stress resistance using the most effective selection methods, genetic markers, genetic and mathematical models, and genetic engineering methods.

Keywords: productive longevity, milk yield, stress, reproductive function, heritability, genetic markers, free radicals.

 

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