doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2017.3.515eng

UDC 633.18:631.811:631.523:575.116

Supported by Russian Science Foundation (grant № 16 44 230207 p_a)



Yu.K. Goncharova, E.M. Kharitonov, B.A. Sheleg

All-Russian Research Institute of Rice, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations, pos. Belozerniy, Krasnodar, 350921 Russia, e-mail (corresponding author)

Goncharova Yu.K.

Received August 1, 2016


To date, the doses of mineral fertilizers per hectare in Asia and Europe are the highest in the world. This leads to serious problems for environment contamination, including water pollution, an increase in emission of hotbed gases and a decrease of pH in soils and water. Nitrogen utilization in rice, wheat and corn is 26-30 %, and in vegetables less than 20 % (K. Vinod et al., 2012). During last fifty years high yielding varieties are being bred at high mineral nutrition. An increase in doses of fertilizers has resulted in smaller efficiency of their application and an increasing adverse impact on the environment. As a rule, the varieties which are high productive due to introduced high doses of fertilizers are less effective in their utilization. Besides, productivity of such varieties is very unstable as being considerably influenced by doses of the introduced fertilizers, terms of their introduction, ambient temperature, etc. In the paper we briefly reviewed the mechanisms of plants adaptation to low nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition, and the genotypic distinctions in the efficiency of using these elements. The efficiency is noted to be influenced no only by various responses of genotypes to the applied doses, but also by a source of element and the interactions between a genotype and the environment. Comparison of genotypes of rice has shown 20-fold distinction in efficiency of phosphorus use between extreme types (M. Wissuwa et al., 2001). All highly effective genotypes are cultivars with age-old longevity or endemics. Most P-containing organic compounds that plants have to extract from soil should be turned into the accessible form by phosphatases. So a genotypic diversity in the efficiency of phosphorus use is related to different activity of phosphatases. Phytin acid produced by roots and the rhizosphere microorganisms is one of the agents promoting phosphorus accessibility (A.E. Richardson et al., 2001). Therefore, the plant ability to support favorable microbial communities in the rhizosphere serves as the additional adaptive mechanism. Plant adaptation to low nitrogen and phosphorus levels can be due to root system development, intensification of absorption and utilization, and also to biosynthesis and excretion of the organic acids to increase availability of the mineral elements in the rhizosphere (H. Lambers et al., 2006). Redistribution of the absorbed elements between generative and vegetative organs, between leaves on one or different stems stands for an internal efficiency of nutrient utilization. Variability on the efficiency of nutrition utilization among 30 rice genotypes resulted mainly from distinctions in the growth of root system which increased the absorbing area. Variability of genotypes on the tolerance to a lack of phosphorus was mainly due to different ability to P absorption, while the changes in the efficiency of P utilization were insignificant. OTL related to N and P utilization and specific molecular markers flanking the loci, RM 53, RM 25, RM 600, RM 242, RM 235, RM 247, RM 322, RM 13, RM 261, RM 19 (D. Wei et al., 2012; Y. Cho et al.,  2007), are found in foreign and domestic rice varieties. In the Russian rice varieties all studied markers to QTL involved in the expression of effective absorption of mineral elements are polymorphic (Yu.К. Goncharova et al., 2015) that allows to use these markers in marker-assisted selection and screening population to reveal donors of desirable traits.

Keywords: rice, mineral nutrition, efficiency of use nitrogen and phosphorus, QTL, microsatellite (SSR) markers.


Full article (Rus)

Full text (Eng)



  1. Goncharova Yu.K., Litvinova E.V., Ochkas N.A. Trudy Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta, 2010: 54-58 (in Russ.).       
  2. Goncharova Yu.K. Inheritance of determinants specific for physiological heterosis basis in rice hybrids. Agricultural Biology, 2010, 5: 72-78.
  3. Kharitonov E.M., Goncharova Y.K. Mineral nutrient efficiency of rice. Russian Agricultural Sciences, 2011, 37(2): 103-105 CrossRef
  4. Batjes N.H. A world data set of derived soil properties by FAOUNESCO soil unit for global modeling. Soil Use Manage, 1997, 13: 9-16 CrossRef
  5. Dobermann A., Fairhurst T. Rice: nutrient disorders and nutrient management. Oxford Graphic Printers Pte Ltd, 2000: 60-71.
  6. Fageria N.K., Baligar V.C. Upland rice genotypes evaluation for phosphorus use efficiency. J. Plant Nutr., 2010, 20:499-509 CrossRef
  7. Lea P.J., Miflin B.J. Nitrogen assimilation and its relevance to crop improvement. In:Annual plant reviews. V. 42. Nitrogen metabolism in plants in the post-genomic era. C.H. Foyer, H. Zhang (eds.). Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010 CrossRef
  8. Vinod K.K., Heuer S. Approaches towards nitrogen- and phosphorus-efficient rice. AoB Plants, 2012: pls028 CrossRef
  9. Huang Y.Z., Feng Z.W., Zhang F.Z. Study on loss of nitrogen fertilizer from agricultural fields and countermeasure. Journal of the Graduate School of Academia Sinica, 2000, 17: 49-58.
  10. Runge-Metzger A. Closing the cycle: obstacles to efficient P management for improved global food security. In: Phosphorus in the global environment: transfers, cycles and management. H. Tiessen (ed.). NY, 1995: 27-42.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Current world fertilizer trends and outlook to 2011/12. FAO, Rome, Italy, 2008.
  12. Goncharova Yu.K., Kharitonov E.M. Vavilovskii zhurnal genetiki i selektsii,2015, 19(2): 197-204(in Russ.).       
  13. Hammond J.P., Broadley M.R., White P.J. Genetic responses to phosphorus deficiency. Ann. Bot., 2004, 94: 323-332 CrossRef
  14. Guimil S., Chang H.S., Zhu T., Sesma A., Osbourn A., Roux C., Ioannidis V., Oakeley E.J., Docquier M., Descombes P., Briggs S.P., Paszkowski U. Comparative transcriptomics of rice reveals an ancient pattern of response to microbial colonization. PNAS USA, 2005, 102: 8066-8070 CrossRef
  15. Piao Z., Cho Y.I., Koh H.J. Inheritance of physiological nitrogen-use efficiency and relationship among its associated charaters in rice. Korean J. Breed., 2001, 33: 332-337.
  16. Li B.Z., Merrick M., Li S.M., Li H.Y., Zhu S.W., Shi W.M., Su Y.H. Molecular basis and regulation of ammonium transporter in rice. Rice Science, 2009, 16: 314-322.
  17. Kirk G.D., George T., Courtois B., Senadhira D. Opportunities to improve phosphorus efficiency and soil fertility in rainfed lowland and upland rice ecosystems. Field Crops Res., 1998, 56: 73-92 CrossRef
  18. Peng S., Yang J., Lasa R., Sanico A., Visperas R., Son T. Physiological bases of heterosis and crop management strategies for hybrid rice in the tropics. Proc. Int. Conf. «Hybrid rice for food security, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection». Hanoi, 2003: 153-173.
  19. Wissuwa M., Wegner J., Ae N., Yano M. Substitution mapping of Pup1: a major QTL increasing phosphorus uptake of rice from a phosphorus-deficient soil. Theor. Appl. Genet., 2002, 105: 890-897 CrossRef
  20. Wissuwa M., Ae N. Genotypic variation for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency in rice and the potential for its exploitation in rice improvement. Plant Breeding, 2001, 120: 43-48 CrossRef
  21. Wissuwa M. Combining a modeling with a genetic approach in establishing associations between genetic and physiological effects in relation to phosphorus uptake. Plant Soil, 2005, 269: 57-68 CrossRef
  22. Wissuwa M. How do plants achieve tolerance to phosphorus deficiency? Small causes with big effects. Plant Physiol., 2003, 133: 1947-1958 CrossRef
  23. Wissuwa M., Gamat G., Ismail A.M. Is root growth under phosphorus deficiency affected by source or sink limitations. J. Exp. Bot., 2005, 56: 1943-1950 CrossRef
  24. Goncharova Yu.K. Geneticheskie osnovy povysheniya produktivnosti risa. Doktorskaya dissertatsiya [Genetical bases of increasing rice productivity. DSc Thesis]. Krasnodar, 2014 (in Russ.).
  25. Lambers H., Shane M.W., Cramer M.D., Pearse S.J., Veneklaas E.J. Root structure and functioning for efficient acquisition of phosphorus: matching morphological and physiological traits. Ann. Bot., 2006, 98: 693-713 (doi: 10.1093/aob/mcl114).
  26. Shane M.W., Lambers H. Cluster roots: a curiosity in context. Plant Soil, 2005, 274: 99-123 CrossRef
  27. Misson J., Raghothama K.G., Jain A., Jouhet J., Block M.A., Bligny R., Ortet P., Creff A., Somerville S., Rolland N., Doumas P., Nacry P., Herrerra-Estrella L., Nussaume L., Thibaud M.C. Agenome-wide transcriptional analysis using Arabidopsis thaliana. Affymetrix gene chips determined plant responses to phosphate deprivation. PNAS USA, 2005, 102: 11934-11939 CrossRef
  28. Morcuende R., Bari R., Gibon Y., Zheng W., Pant B.D., Blasing O., Usadel B., Czechowski T., Udvardi M.K., Stitt M., Scheible W.R. Genome-wide reprogramming of metabolism and regulatory networks of Arabidopsis in response to phosphorus. Plant, Cell & Environment, 2007, 30: 85-112 CrossRef
  29. Marschner P., Solaiman Z., Rengel Z. Rhizosphere properties of Poaceae genotypes under P-limiting conditions. Plant Soil, 2006, 283: 11-24 CrossRef
  30. Radersma S., Grierson P.F. Phosphorus mobilisation in agroforestry: organic anions, phosphatase activity and phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere. Plant Soil, 2004, 259: 209-219 CrossRef
  31. Richardson A.E., Hadobas P.A., Hayes J.E. Extracellular secretion of Aspergillusphytase from Arabidopsis roots enables plants to obtain phosphorus from phytate. Plant J., 2001, 256: 641-649.
  32. Rengel Z., Romheld V., Marschner H. Uptake of zinc and iron by wheat genotypes differing in tolerance to zinc deficiency. J. Plant Physiol., 1998, 152: 433-438 CrossRef
  33. Suzuki M.T., Takashi T., Satoshi W., Shinpei M., Junshi Y., Naoki K., Shoshi K., Hiromi N., Satoshi M., Naoko K.N. Biosynthesis and secretion of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores in zinc deficient barley. Plant J., 2006, 48: 85-97 CrossRef
  34. Nguyen B.D., Brar D.S., Bui B.C., Nguyen T.V., Pham L.N., Nguyen H.T. Identification and mapping of the QTL for aluminum tolerance introgressed from the new source, Oryza rufipogon Griff., into indica rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor. Appl. Genet., 2003, 106: 583-593 CrossRef
  35. Ye G., Smith K.F. Marker-assisted gene pyramiding for cultivar development. In: Plant Breeding Reviews, V. 33. J. Janick (ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 2010 CrossRef
  36. Zhang Y.J., Dong Y.J., Zhang J.Z., Xiao K., Xu J.L., Terao H. Mapping QTLs for deficiency phosphorus response to root-growth of rice seedling. Rice Genetics Newsletter, 2006, 25:36-37.
  37. Wei D., Cui K., Pan J., Xiang J., Huang J., Nie L. QTL mapping for nitrogen-use efficiency and nitrogen-deficiency tolerance traits in rice. Plant Soil, 2012, 359: 281-295 CrossRef
  38. Cho Y., Jiang W., Chin J., Piao Z., Cho Y., Mc Couch S.R., Koh H. Identification of QTLs associated with physiological nitrogen use efficiency in rice. Mol. Cells, 2007, 23, 1: 72-79.
  39. Peng S., Ismail A.M. Physiological basis of yield and environmental adaptation in rice. In: Physiology and biotechnology integration for plant breeding. H.T. Nguyen, A. Blum (eds.). NY, 2004: 83-140.
  40. Chin J.H., Gamuyao R., Dalid C., Bustamam M., Prasetiyono J., Moeljopawiro S., Wissuwa M., Heuerm S. Developing rice with high yield under phosphorus deficiency: Pup1 sequence to application. Plant Physiol., 2011, 156: 1202-1216.
  41. Su J., Xiao Y., Li M., Liu Q., Li B., Tong Y., Jia J., Li Z. Mapping QTLs for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance at wheat seedling stage. Plant Soil, 2006, 281: 25-36 CrossRef
  42. Lang N., Buu B. Mapping QTLs for phosphorus deficiency tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Omon Rice, 2006, 14: 1-9.
  43. Ni J.J., Wu P., Senadhira D., Huang N. Mapping QTLs for phosphorus deficiency tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor. Appl. Genet., 1998, 97: 1361-1369 CrossRef
  44. Xu Y., Crouch J.H. Marker-assisted selection in plant breeding: from publications to practice. Crop Sci., 2008, 48: 391-407 CrossRef
  45. Rariasca-Tanaka J., Satoh K., Rose T., Mauleon R., Wissuwa M. Stress response versus stress tolerance: a transcriptome analysis of two rice lines contrast in tolerance to phosphorus deficiency. Rice, 2009, 2:167-185.
  46. Runge-Metzger A. Closing the cycle: obstacles to efficient P management for improved global food security. In: Phosphorus in the global environment: transfers, cycles and management. H. Tiessen (ed.). NY, 1995: 27-42.
  47. Shimizu A., Yanagihara S., Kawasaki S., Ikehashi H. Phosphorus deficiency — induced root elongation and its QTL in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor. Appl. Genet., 2004, 109: 1361-1368 CRossRef
  48. Goncharova Yu.K., Kharitonov E.M. Geneticheskie osnovy povysheniya produktivnosti risa [Genetic approach to improving rice productivity]. Krasnodar, 2015 (in Russ.).