633:631.811:[631.86+579.852.11]

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HUMATE AND BACTERIAL FERTILIZER BIOSTAR EFFECT ON SELENIUM, ZINC AND COPPER ACCUMULATION AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS UTILIZATION

N.A. Golubkina1, S.P. Zamana2, M.M. Tareeva1, V.Yu. Mukhortov1, V.F. Pivovarov1

In the field conditions the specific and varietal features of Se, Zn and Cu accumulation from soil and plant productivity during utilization of humate and Biostar preparation were investi-gated in Brassica japonica, Allium porrum and Allium sativum L. plants. The authors shown the un-questionable advantage of bacterial preparation, which permit to raise maximum the microelements accumulation in plants and the harvest of improved cultures.

Key words: humate, Biostar, selenium, zinc, copper, Brassica japonica, Allium porrum, Allium sativum L.

 

The production of environmentally pure food products - so-called “organic food” - with high nutritional value (particularly, vegetables rich in microelements and vitamins) is the main task of modern agriculture. Its solution requires different approaches – reducing the amount of mineral fertilizers, widespread use of growth promoters, increasing the efficiency of plants nutrition by improved soil fertility and bioavailability of microelements.
The introduction of natural complexing agents (humates, zeolites) (1), phytohormones (2) and soil microorganisms (3) is the promising agriculture technique. Humic substances are the most common natural ligands, which provide structuring of soil and its high water-holding capacity, accelerate the assimilation of micronutrients by plants and seed germination; they promote activation and development of the microflora (4) and the increased soil fertility (5). It has been suggested that humic acids may also influence photosynthesis and respiration, thus performing hormone-like activity (1).
Colonization of humus by soil microflora (using humic acids and / or introducing microorganisms into the soil) ensures the formation of biologically available water-soluble calcium, phosphorus and iron compounds, and it also reduces water evaporation, which is very important for thin-clay and sandy soils unable to retain water.
However, the use of humic acids is complicated with their heterogeneity (6), and the use of microorganisms requires careful assessment of resulting benefits.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of sodium humate, and the microbiological fertilizer Biostar (based on Bacillus sp.) on the accumulation of selenium, copper and zinc in vegetable crops against a background of introduction the organic fertilizers.
Methods. The study was performed in Moscow region in 2007-2008, upon the vegetables : cabbage Brassica japonica L. the varieties Mizuna, Shiroguki Kyona (Little Mermaid) and Bansei Maruba Mibuna, leeks Allium porrum L. the variety Karantansky and garlic Allium sativum L. the variety Petrovsky.

1. Microelement composition of sodium humate (Krasnoyarsk)

Microelement

Content , mg/g

Al

3,520

Ca

11,110

K

0,049

Mg

1,600

Na

15,530

Sr

0,170

Ba

0,126

Si

0,520

B

0,020

Zn

0,050

Cu

0,020

Ba

0,126

Fe

7,450

Co

0

Mo

0

V

0

Ti

0

Zr

0

Hg

0,00003

As

0,00050

Cd

0

Pb

0

Ni

0

The plants were grown on sod-podzolic soil (site size - 50 m2) fertilized with horse manure at the rate of 0,5 kg/m2 under the scheme: variant I - control (without treatment), variants II and III - with the additional introduction before planting of sodium humate (5% solution at the rate of 3 - 6 l / ha, composition - see Table. 1) and the preparation Biostar (“Agrostar SA”, Belgium) (at the rate of 1 kg/m2), respectively. The bacterial fertilizer Biostar consists of finely ground straw (75%), the mineral complex containing N, P and K in the ratio 4:4:4 (24%) and the complex of selective microorganisms Bacillus sp. - 5 x 106 CFU / g (1%).
Brassica japonica L. was harvested in mid-July, Allium porrum L. and Allium sativum L. - in late August. The microelement composition was analyzed in garlic bulbs without pre-treatment, two other crops were dried at room temperature to constant weight and homogenized. Selenium content in soil and plants  was determined fluorometrically using fluorimeter MPF-2A (Japan) (7), the content of other micro-and macroelements - by atomic absorption spectrometry on the device Analyst 200 (“Perkin Elmer”, USA) (8).
Statistical processing of data was performed using the Student criterion.
Results. In all the test sites, the introduction of horse manure resulted in very high content of mobile phosphorus and metabolizable potassium (Table 2). The content of calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and selenium were within background values.
Gumate and the bacterial fertilizer effectively increased the yield in studied crops, though, their action was species-specific: the introduction of humate and Biostar provided almost similar weight gain in bulbs of Allium sativum L. (about 70%), while the weight of Brassica japonica L. and Allium porrum L. plants was significantly different in the variants II and III (P <0,001) (Table 3). The greatest weight gain compared with control was provided by Biostar: in 2,5 times - in Brassica japonica L., in 3,1 times - in Allium porrum L.
The increased accumulation of Se, Zn and Cu in all the crops was also observed under the influence of humate and Biostar. The accumulation of selenium to the least degree was determined by the used fertilizer (in 1,07-1,37 times higher than in control). For Brassica japonica L. and Allium sativum  L., differences in Se accumulation between the variants II and III were insignificant (P> 0,5), while Allium porrum L. showed a trend  to increase in Se content in variant III compared with II (P <0,5).
The beneficial effect of soil microorganisms on Se accumulation by plants was described in connection with the possibility of phytoremediation of contaminated soils (9). According to our data, bacterial fertilizers can be used to improve Se content in vegetables, paying attention to varietals’ differences in this characteristic (Figure). Thus, when comparing the three varieties of Brassica japonica L., we revealed the significantly higher ability to Se accumulation in the Little Mermaid variety (P <0,001) compared with the varieties Mibuna and Mizuna. At the same time, the Mibuna variety manifested the highest sensitivity to humate and Biostar.
The accumulation of Zn and Cu by plants was significantly different in test variants. Soil fertilization with humate had almost no effect on content of Zn in plants (an increase in 1,00-1,20 times), while Biostar stimulated the increase in 1,24 - 2,46 times compared with control. For the content of Cu, humate provided the effect significantly less than that of Biostar (P <0,001): in 1,07 - 1,73 and in 1,80 - 8,50 times, respectively, compared with control. Besides, in ordinary growing conditions,  Allium porrum L.  performs the higher accumulation of Zn and Cu than some other crops (for example, respectively, in 3 and 10 times higher than  Brassica japonica L.).
The tested varieties were distinct in their ability to accumulate microelements under the effect of fertilizers. Biostar provided the highest shift of Se content in Allium porrum L.  (in 1,34 times), Zn - in Brassica japonica L.(in 2,46 times), Cu – in Brassica japonica L.(in 8,50 times ) and Allium sativum  L. (in 6,30 times) (in Allium sativum  L., the content of Cu increased in 1,80 times only).
The introduction of humate and  Biostar has led to the raise of plant weight and the content of microelements; these fertilizers also affected their ratio, which sought to integer values in all the studied varieties (see Table. 3). However, the Fibonacci numbers were obtained only in the variants with Biostar thus indicating an optimum growing conditions providing high weight of plants. The golden section search was particularly studied in agriculture only for phyllotaxis (10) and it has never been used for the assessment of natural symmetry in accumulation of microelements.

2.  Agrochemical characteristics of sod-podzolic soil in test sites after the introduction of organic fertilizer (horse manure 0,5 kg/m2,  Moscow reg., 2007 - 2008)

Characteristic

Value

Actual, ±

Background

6,5±0,1

4,5-6,5

25, mg/100 g

918±41

5-10

2,  mg/100 g

449±121

7-12

N3,  mg/100 g

6,3±3,3

not detected

,  mg-ecv./100 g

7,8±1,6

5-10

Mg,  mg-ecv./100 g

2,0±0,4

2-3

Cu,  mg/100 g

29,1±11,3

27

Zn,  mg/100 g

62,4±22,7

50

Se,  mg/kg

224±32

210-270

Accumulation of Se by different varieties of Brassica japonica L. in control ( a), after the use of humate ( b) and the bacterial preparation Biostar ( c) (Moscow reg., 2007 - 2008).
Note: – a b c,   abscissa – the varieties Mizuna, Little Mermaid, Mibuna,   ordinate – Se content, mcg/kg dry plant mass

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. The content of microelements and weight of a plant in the studied crops after the introduction of Biostar bacterial preparation against the background of organic fertilizer (X±x, Moscow reg., 2007 - 2008)

Characteristic

Variant

Brassica japonica L., var. Mizuna

Allium porrum L., var. Karantansky

Allium sativum L., var. Petrovsky

Weight of one plant, g (multiplicity)

I

208±43

31±8

23±5

II

367±30

71±7

40±2* (1,73)

III

520±48

95±8

39±2*

Se, mcg/kg dry biomass (multiplicity)

I

168±15

135±10

173±15

II

179±15 (1,07)

171±14

237±19 (1,37)

III

185±16

181±15

206±18 (1,19)

Zn, mcg/kg dry biomass (multiplicity)

I

65±5

182±11

33±4

II

74±6

183±12

37±4

III

160±9

226±17

61±5

Cu, mcg/kg dry biomass (multiplicity)

I

19±4

242±17

11±1

II

25±3

258±18

19±1 (1,73)

III

162±8

436±17

69±3 (6,30)

1000 Se:Zn:Cu

I

9:3:1

2:3:4

16:3:1

II

7:3:1

7:7:10

13:2:1

III

1:1:1

1:1:2

3:1:1

Note: variant I –control, II and III – after the use of humate and the Biostar preparation (the background in all the variants – organic fertilizer). Weight of one plant: Brassica japonica L., Allium porrum L.– dry biomass, Allium sativum L. - green biomass.
* < 0,001 compared to control

 

Thus, have compared the effects of humate and the Biostar bacterial fertilizer  in Brassica japonica L., Allium porrum L.  and Allium sativum  L., the unquestionable advantage of Biostar was proved: it stimulated the highest weight of plants and the best composition of microelements in vegetable products.

 

1. P e n a - M e n d e z E.M., H a v e l J., P a t o c k a J. Humic substances-compounds of still unknown structure:applications in agriculture, industry, environment and biomedicine. J. Appl. Biomed., 2005, 3: 13-24.
2. .., .., .., .., .. AlliumsativumL. . , 2007, 5: 32-33.
3. L a r s e n E.H., L o b i n s k i R., B u r g e r - M e y e r K. e.a. Limitations in the use of commercial humic acids in water and soil research. Environ. Sci. Technol.,1986, 20: 904-911.
4. S e n e s i N., M i a n o T.M., P r o v e n z a n o M.R., B r u n e t t i G. Characterization, differentiation and classification of humic substances by fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil Sci., 1991, 152: 259-271.
5. B u c k a u G., H o o k e r P., M o u l i n V. e.a. Versatile components of plants, soils and water. In: Humic substances /E.A. Ghabbour, G. Davies (eds.). RSC, Cambridge, 2000.
6. M a l c o l m R.E., M a c C a r t h y P. Limitations in the use of commercial humic acids in water and soil research. Environ. Sci. Technol.,1986, 20: 904-911.
7. A l f t h a n G.V. A micromethod for the determination of selenium in tissues and biological fluids by single-test-tube fluorimetry. Anal. Chim. Acta, 1984, 65: 187-94.
8. 30178-96. . - . ., 2003.
9. S l o t h J.J., S c h o l t e n O., K i k C. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soils amended with symbiotic fungy (mycorrhiza) and selenate. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2006, 385(6): 1098-1108.
10. .. . , 2002: 365-389.

1All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Vegetable Crop Selection and Seed-Growing, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
117312 . , . 60- , 7, . 1,
e-mail: vniissok@mail.ru, segolubkina@rambler.ru, tareeva-marina@rambler.ru, mastergeo@mail.ru
2Research and Development Agriculture Institute of Central Regions of Non-Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation,
Moscow region, vil. Novoivanovskoye 143026, Russia,
e-mail: tarasfed@mail.ru

Received November 24, 2009

back