doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2018.2.385eng

UDC 636.52/.58.084.1:636.085.8:636.086.782

The experiments were carried out on the equipment of ARRIBCB Shared Equipment Center.

The research was conducted with financial support from the Russian Science Foundation (grant № 16-16-10048)



V.I. Fisinin1, A.S. Ushakov1, G.K. Duskaev2, N.M. Kazachkova2,
B.S. Nurzhanov2, Sh.G. Rakhmatullin2, G.I. Levakhin2

1Federal Scientific Center All-Russian Research and Technological Poultry Institute RAS, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations,10, ul. Ptitsegradskaya, Sergiev Posad, Moscow Province, 141311 Russia;
2Federal Research Centre of Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies RAS, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations, 29, ul. 9 Yanvarya, Orenburg, 460000 Russia, e-mail (✉ corresponding author)

Fisinin V.I.
Ushakov A.S.
Duskaev G.K.
Kazachkova N.M.
Nurzhanov B.S.
Rakhmatullin Sh.G.
Levakhin G.I.

Received December 18, 2017


To date, numerous studies are focused on searching for alternatives to antibiotics with similar antimicrobial and growth-stimulating effects that do not cause bacterial resistance and potential side effects for animals. Promising phytogenic compounds have been also recognized as potential alternatives to antibiotics in feeds. One of the problems of phytogenic compound use is the unstable chemical composition of plant extracts, depending on the conditions of growth, distribution area and other factors, so the question arises of extracting some substances with the known properties or designing their compositions. In this paper, it has been shown for the first time that a dietary composition of biologically active substances of Quercus cortex helps to maintain productivity and improves the immunomodulating state of Smena 8 poultry cross broilers. In our experiment, a composition of substances (CS) extracted from Quercus cortex and chemically synthesized («Acros Organics B.V.B.A.», Belgium) was used, including 2-n-propylresorcinol (98 %, AVH27024); 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (99 %, AC14082-1000); 7-hydroxycoumarin (99 %, AC12111-0250); 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol (98.5 %, AC18914-0050); scopoletin (95 %, AC30290-0010); coniferyl alcohol (98 %, AL22373-5) with a confirmed anti-QS effect. A total of 120 broiler chickens aged 7 days were divided into 4 groups (n = 30) by analogue method. Control group was fed with the basic diet (BD). BD + CS 1 (1 ml/kg of live weight), BD + CS 2 (2 ml/kg of lw), and BD + CS 3 (3 ml/kg lw) were used for group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively. In the experimental groups, as compared to the control, the number of blood leukocytes increased by 19.2-28.5 % (P ≤ 0.05), blood lymphocytes were higher by 24.4, 36.2 % (P ≤ 0.05) and 44.0 % (P ≤ 0.05), blood monocytes were higher by 23.5, 23.5 and 29.4 % (Р ≤ 0.05), and blood granulocyte counts were higher by 12.3 % (Р ≤ 0.05), 5.7 and 9.5 %. The blood ALT activity in the group 2 and group 3 exceeded the control value by 13.2 % (P ≤ 0.05). The level of GGT tended to decrease in the group 2 and group 3, along with a significant decrease in LDH by 17.6-22.5 % (P ≤ 0.05). The intake of the CS as a feed additive was accompanied by an increase in blood SOD levels in the test groups, the highest concentration being observed in the group 1 (95.3 %). The catalase indices had similar patterns. Dietary composition of biologically active substances promoted a 16.4 % increase (P ≤ 0.05) in blood b-lysine levels in the group 1. Within 4 weeks, the dietary CSs led to an increase in the live weight of the poultry of the group 2 and groups 3 by 12.6-15.0 % (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the group 1. In the group 1, the birds grew more rapidly with a 100 % survival rate of the herd, in contrast to the remaining groups with the survival index of 71 to 85 %. These contributed to an insignificant increase in the bird live weight at the end of the experiment (day 42) by 1.9 % (P ≥ 0.05) compared to the control group. Thus, feeding broiler chickens with the composition of bioactive substances in the initial concentration helps to maintain productivity and improve the immunomodulating state of body.

Keywords: biologically active substances, oak bark, broiler chickens, biochemical and morphological parameters of blood, blood enzymes, growth rate.


Full article (Rus)

Full article (Eng)



  1. Randrianarivelo R., Danthu P., Benoit C., Ruez P., Raherimandimby M., Starter S. Novel alternative to antibiotics in shrimp hatchery: effects of the essential oil of Cinnamosma fragrans on survival and bacterial concentration of Penaeus monodon larvae. J. Appl. Microbiol., 2010, 109: 642-650 CrossRef
  2. Allen H.K., Levine U.Y., Looft T., Bandrick M., Casey T.A. Treatment, promotion, commotion: antibiotic alternatives in food-producing animals. Trends Microbiol., 2013, 21: 114-119. CrossRef
  3. Windisch W., Schedle K., Plitzer C., Kroismayr A. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. J. Anim. Sci., 2008, 86: e140-e148 CrossRef
  4. Yang W.Z., Benchaar C., Ametaj B.N., Chaves A.V., He M.L., McAllister T.A. Effect of garlic and juniper berry essential oils on ruminal fermentation and on the site and extent of digestion in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci.,2007, 90: 5671-5678 CrossRef
  5. Gong J., Yin F., Hou Y., Yin Y. Review: Chinese herbs as alternatives to antibiotics in feed for swine and poultry production: potential and challenges in application. Can. J. Anim. Sci.,2014, 94: 223-241 CrossRef
  6. Puvaca N., Stanacev V., Glamocic D., Levic J., Peric L., Stanacev V., Milic D. Beneficial effects of phytoadditives in broiler nutrition. World Poultry Sci. J.,2013, 69: 27-34 CrossRef
  7. Vikram A., Jayaprakasha G.K., Jesudhasan P.R., Pillai S.D., Patil B.S. Suppression of bacterial cell-cell signalling, biofilm formation and type III secretion system by citrus flavonoids. J. Appl. Microbiol.,2010, 109: 515-527 CrossRef 
  8. Truchado P., Gimenez-Bastida J.A., Larrosa M., Castro-Ibanez I., Espin J.C., Tomas-Barberan F.A., Garcia-Conesa M.T., Allende A. Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) in Yersinia enterocolitica by an orange extract rich in glycosylated flavanones. J. Agric. Food Chem.,2012, 60(36): 8885-8894 CrossRef
  9. Choo J.H., Rukayadi Y., Hwang J.K. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by vanilla extract. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.,2006, 42: 637-641 CrossRef
  10. Zhou L., Zheng H., Tang Y., Yu W., Gong Q. Eugenol inhibits quorum sensing at sub-inhibitory concentrations. Biotechnol. Lett., 2013, 35: 631-637 CrossRef
  11. Defoirdt T., Boon N., Bossier P., Verstraete W. Disruption of bacterial quorum sensing: an unexplored strategy to fight infections in aquaculture. Aquaculture,2004, 240: 69-88 CrossRef
  12. Deryabin D.G., Tolmacheva A.A. Antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing molecular composition derived from Quercus cortex (Oak bark) extract. Molecules, 2015, 20(9): 17093-17108 CrossRef
  13. Tolmacheva A.A., Rogozhin E.A., Deryabin D.G. Antibacterial and quorum sensing regulatory activities of some traditional Eastern-European medicinal plants. Acta Pharmaceutica, 2014, 64(2): 173-186 CrossRef
  14. Fisinin V.I., Egorov I.A., Lenkova T.N., Okolelova T.M., Ignatova G.V., Shevyakov A.N., Panin I.G., Grechishnikov V.V., Vetrov P.A., Afanas'ev V.A., Ponomarenko Yu.A. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po optimizatsii retseptov kombikormov dlya sel'skokhozyaistvennoi ptitsy [Guidelines for the optimization of animal feed recipes for poultry]. Moscow, 2009 (in Russ.).
  15. Togun V.A., Oseni B.S.A. Effect of low level inclusion of biscuit dust in broiler finisher diet on pre-pubertal growth and some haematological parameters of unsexed broilers. Res. Comm. Anim. Sci.,2005, 1: 10-14.
  16. Khalaji S., Zaghari M., Hatami K., Hedari-Dastjerdi S., Lotfi L., Nazarian H. Black cumin seeds, Artemisia leaves (Artemisia sieberi), and Camellia L. plant extract as phytogenic products in broiler diets and their effects on performance, blood constituents, immunity, and cecal microbial population. Poultry Sci.,2011, 90(11): 2500-2510 CrossRef
  17. Abou-Elkhair R., Ahmed H.A., Selim S. Effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 2014, 27(6): 847-854 CrossRef
  18. Geetha R.V., Lakshmi T., Roy A. A review on nature’s immune boosters. Intl. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res.,2012, 13: 43-52.
  19. Abu Hafsa S.H., Ibrahim S.A. Effect of dietary polyphenol-rich grape seed on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and ileal microflora in broiler chicks. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 2017, 102(1): 268-275 CrossRef
  20. Qiao H.Y., Dahiya J.P., Classen H.L. Nutritional and physiological effects of dietary sinapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-cinnamic acid) in broiler chickens and its metabolism in the digestive tract. Poultry Sci., 2008, 87(4): 719-726 CrossRef
  21. Rtibi K., Hammami I., Selmi S., Grami D., Sebai H., Amri M., Marzouki L. Phytochemical properties and pharmacological effects of Quercus ilex L. aqueous extract on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vitro and in vivo. Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017, 94: 787-793 CrossRef
  22. Popovi? B.M., Štajner D., ?dero R., Orlovi? S., Gali? Z. Antioxidant characterization of oak extracts combining spectrophotometric assays and chemometrics. Sci. World J., 2013: 134656 CrossRef
  23. Youn S.H., Kwon J.H., Yin J., Tam L.T., Ahn H.S., Myung S.C., Lee M.W. Anti-inflammatory and anti-urolithiasis effects of polyphenolic compounds from Quercus gilva Blume. Molecules, 2017, 22(7): 1121 CrossRef
  24. Samuel K.G., Wang J., Yue H.Y., Wu S.G., Zhang H.J., Duan Z.Y., Qi G.H. Effects of dietary gallic acid supplementation on performance, antioxidant status, and jejunum intestinal morphology in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci.,2017, 96(8): 2768-2775 CrossRef
  25. Shirzadegan K., Falahpour P. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture. Open Vet. J., 2014, 4(2): 69-77.
  26. Wagle B.R., Upadhyay A., Arsi K., Shrestha S., Venkitanarayanan K., Donoghue A.M., Donoghue D.J. Application of β-resorcylic acid as potential antimicrobial feed additive to reduce campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. Front. Microbiol., 2017, 8: 599 CrossRef
  27. Engels C., Schieber A., Gänzle M.G. Inhibitory spectra and modes of antimicrobial action of gallotannins from mango kernels (Mangifera indica L.). Appl. Environ. Microb., 2011, 77(7): 2215-2223 CrossRef
  28. Karimov I., Duskaev G., Inchagova K., Kartabaeva M. Inhibition of bacterial Quorum sensing by the ruminal fluid of cattle. International Journal of GEOMATE, 2017, 13(40): 88-92 CrossRef
  29. Nohynek L.J., Alakomi H.-L., Kähkönen M.P., Heinonen M., Helander I.M., Oksman-Caldentey K.M., Puupponen-Pimiä R.H. Berry phenolics: antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens. Nutr. Cancer, 2006, 54(1): 18-32 CrossRef