UDC 59.009:632.6/.7:591.54(470.342)

doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2015.2.137eng


A.N. Solov’ev, T.G. Shikhova, E.I. Busygin

Prof. B.M. Zhitkov Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences,79 ul. Preobrazhenskaya, Kirov, 610000 Russia,
e-mail biomon@mail.ru

Received April 14, 2014

With a steady climate change increases the risk of weather anomalies. The droughts, forest fires, winter frosts become more frequent that affects the abundance and diversity of animals, including commercial species and crop pests. The deviation of timing of the phases of ontogeny from multiyear is a sensitive indicator of the state and the processes of ecosystems. In order to identify the features of the biota response to extreme weather conditions we studied the reaction of animals of the East Russian Plain (Kirov Region) to weather anomalies of cold winter in 2009-2010 and the hot summer of 2010 according to phenological (1890-2013 years) and phytosanitary (2000-2013 years) monitoring of 52 species Clitellata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Insecta, Aves, Mammalia. The observations were carried out on the territory of the boreal ecotone with different changes of hydrothermal regime within Vyatsko-Verkhnekamsk District of the Volga Region. The phenological monitoring carried out by a standard technique involving public opinion poll from permanent correspondents. We analyzed the date of the seasonal phases of development: the end of winter diapause, the beginning of oviposition, hatching of larvae, the emergence of the imago insects; spring arrival, the beginning of the breeding cycle, autumn departure of birds and others. In 2010 the survey of additional information on phenology of biological objects was conducted by method of questioning of permanent observers in 23 geographical locations of the Kirov Region. We examined the impact of agro-climatic conditions for the development of pests within permanent control areas of Kumenskii Hospital District Department of the Federal Phytosanitary Service during the active vegetation. Long frosts below -35 °С were pessimal and sublethal for different stages of ontogenesis in Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Aelia acuminata, Agrotis segetum, Oscinnella frit and others. Extreme summer heat above 30 °C and drought were pessimal for Phyllotreta vittula, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and sublethal for eggs and larvae of Oscinnella frit, Aelia acuminata, Elateridae, but contributed to the early emergence of Apion apricans adults. Exceeding monthly average air temperature at the 1 °С resulted in advancing the timing of microthermal insects development by 1.9 days and advancing the arrival dates of near migrant birds by 1 day in April, and in advancing the timing of mesothermal insects development by 1.3 days and advancing the arrival dates of distant migrant birds by 1.4 day in May. The 100 °С excess of the effective temperature in May led to emergence of Oscinnella frit, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Pieris brassicae adults 2.9-3.8 days ahead of due time. In June it resulted in larvae hatching 2.7-4.8 days ahead of due time, and in July their adult summer generation occurred 1.6-1.7 days earlier. Negative impact of pests on crops in abnormal seasons can be reduced by spring crops sowing in early summer, while winter rye should optimally be sowed in later date. In the conditions of mid-latitude of Eastern European Plain the temperatures below -40 °С in winter and long heat up to 40 °С with a summer drought are within the adaptive capacities of the regional biota. Their influence does not cause irreversible consequences in the functioning of wildlife, particularly animals, including pests.

Keywords: animals, phenological events, climatic anomalies, the Russian Plain.


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