УДК 636.086.2/.3:631.461.5


N.V. Parakhin, N.A. Prilepskaya, S.N. Petrova

In the conditions of Central Russian forest-steppe the authors studied the effect of microbiological preparations BisolbiSun and BisolbiMix on plant productivity and effectiveness of mineral nutrition in Pisum sativum of the Tat’yana variety. It was established that the use of microbiological preparation permit to increase the number of active tubercles on plant’s roots, to rise the productivity of plants. The preparation BisolbiSun takes also the fungicidal action, which permit to decrease development of diseases on plants.

Keywords: peas, microbiological fertilizers, fertilizers, biological N2-fixing.


Today, leguminous cultures are especially important for fodder production as a valuable source of protein for feeding farm animals. Along with it, an actual problem is the development of environmentally safe methods based on the realization of biological potential of plants (1). This task can be solved via the use of integrated plant-microbial systems, the most important of which are mycorrhizal symbiosis (arbuscular mycorrhiza), nitrogen-fixing symbioses (such as legumes-Rhizobium) and associations of plants with useful rhizospheral microorganisms (2). Such systems are the base of microbiological preparations that regulate functioning of soil and rhizospheral microflora, plant nutrition and protection of plants from diseases and pests through biosynthesis and release into the soil of phytoalexins, siderophores and phytohormones. Along with it, introducing into the agroecosystem of microorganisms with known positive properties greatly improves the efficiency of mineral fertilizers up to reducing doses by several times (3, 4). The efficiency of microbial preparations significantly depends on soil and climatic factors, cultivar and species characteristics of plants, mineral nutrition (5-7). Testing of complex microbial preparations was performed in Kabardino-Balkaria, in the Altai region, Leningrad province, Moscow and Kirov regions, etc.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of microbial preparations on plant productivity and efficiency of mineral nutrition in peas cultivated in conditions of the Central Russian forest-steppe.
Technique. Investigations were carried out in 2003-2005 (Orel province). The soil of test plots - dark gray forest medium loam containing 4,2% humus, 110 mg/kg available phosphorus and 120 mg/kg exchangeable potassium, hydrolytic acidity – 4,4 mg-eq per 100 g soil, salt pH 5,6. The experiment was set on plots of 21 m2 at the 7-field crop rotation in 4 replicates. The plots were allocated systematically.
The authors studied the responsiveness of peas plants the cultivar Tatyana to the use of microbial preparations bisolbisan and bisolbimix, and their combination with mineral fertilizers. A control variant – with no use of any fertilizers and biological preparations. The preparations were purchased from the producer – the All-Russia Research and Development Institute for Agricultural Microbiology (St.Petersburg). Bisolbisan is a pure culture of associative bacteria (Artrobacter mycorens 7, Flavo-bacterium sp. L. 30, Agrobacterium radiobacter 204, Agrobacterium radiobacter 10, Bacillus subtilis W-13, Pseudomonas fluorescens 2137, Azospirillum lipoferum 137). Bisolbimix is a complex microbial fertilizer containing three components: arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, Glomus fasciculatum), associative (PGPR) and rhizobial (Rizobium leguminosarum) bacteria. Bisolbisan was used for inoculation of pea seeds (dose - 2 l/t), bisolbimiks was introduced into the soil before sowing (dose – 0,3 t/ha).
Mineral fertilizers (N45P60K90) were used according to recommendations for cultivation of peas in conditions of Orel province (8). The minimized norms of the fertilizers were N22,5P30K45. The above-ground and root phytomass were accounted using the method of G.S. Posypanov (9). Nitrogenase activity was determined by acetylene method (10) modified by V.P. Orlov (11). Plant lesion by diseases was assessed by the method of V.A. Zakharenko et al. (12).
The obtained data were processed by variance analysis in Microsoft Excel (13).
Results. Vegetation period of the year 2003 combined adverse climatic factors: high precipitation and low air temperatures. Agrometeorological conditions in 2004 and 2005 were more favorable for the plants.


1. The productivity of peas cv. Tatyana against the use of microbial preparations and mineral fertilizers (Orel province, 2003-2005)



Grain yield, t/ha

Increase to control, %


















N22,5P30K45 + bisolbisan




N22,5P30K45 + bisolbimix








N45P60K90 + bisolbisan




N45P60K90 + bisolbimix




Fig. 2. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by pea cv. Tatyana phytocenoses depending on test variant: 1 — control, 2 — bisolbisan, 3 — bisolbimix, 4 — N22,5P30K45, 5 — N22,5P30K45 + bisolbisan, 6 — N22,5P30K45 + bisolbimix, 7 — N45P60K90, 8 — N45P60K90 + bisolbisan, 9 — N45P60K90 + bisolbimix (Orel province, 2003-2005).
abscissa – Variant,
ordinate – Nitrogen fixation in nodules, t/ha

The applied preparations provided a positive effect on productivity of agrophytocenoses. Pre-sowing inoculation of peas seeds with bisolbisan increased grain yield by 24% and soil treatment with bisolbimix provided 34% increase (Table).
Peas differently responded to the studied preparations when changing the dose of applied mineral fertilizers. Thus, the most effective was using bisolbisan against the background of minimized doses of mineral fertilizers: the crop responsiveness to the preparation elevated by 1,2 times. The efficiency of bisolbimix in a pure form did not differ from that when the combined use with N22,5P30K45. The maximum grain yield was obtained in the variant with inoculation of seeds with bisolbisan against the full rate of fertilizers. However, the yield of 3,31 t/ha can be explained only by the action of mineral fertilizers, because there were no significant differences between the variants of N45P60K90 and bisolbisan + N45P60K90.
The use of microbial preparations in peas cv. Tatiana was most effective at low agricultural background. The increase in grain yield was mainly the result of improved symbiotic activity of the crop provided by the microbial consortium contained in bisolbisan and bisolbimix, and having phytostimulaton effects (Fig. 1).
On average for these 3 years, using microbial preparations contributed to increase in number of active nodules on pea roots in 1,2-1,6 times with a simultaneous rise of grain yields by 19-25%, which corresponded to the results obtained in the variant with applying a half rate of mineral fertilizers. Treatment of soil with higher doses of mineral fertilizers (N45P60K90) was accompanied by the 37% decrease in number of active nodules and inhibition of the nitrogenase complex due to the greater availability of mineral nitrogen compounds (14).
During the combined use of microbial preparations andN22,5P30K45, the number of active nodules increased by 1,9 and 2,2 times while the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed by phytocenoses grew by 60-66% compared with the control (Fig. 2). Apparently, these facts were the result of better supply of plants with photoassimilates in the symbiotic system providing the improved mineral nutrition (15). Similar results were obtained by A.A. Zavalin: in his experiments, inoculation of pea seeds with rizotorfin at the simultaneous use of  N30 has resulted in the 32% increase in number of active nodules on the roots (16).
Along with growth stimulation effects, the tested microbiological preparations inhibited the development of phytopathogenic microflora. Bisolbisan showed the highest efficiency: applying this preparation resulted in decrease of ascochitosis by 1,5-6,4%, root rot - by 4,8-14,8%, powdery mildew - by 5,8-11,5% (Table 2). Bisolbimix caused a negligible effect on infestation of peas plants. The findings of this study were consistent with those obtained by using associative bacteria on barley (6). For bisolbisan, the authors found that Azospirillum lipoferum and especially Pseudomonas fluorescens can significantly inhibit the development of pathogenic fungi.
Thus, microbial preparations bisolbisan and bisolbimix showed a number of beneficial properties. Their use in conditions of the Central Russian forest-steppe provided a positive effect on productivity of peas. The most effective was applying microbiological preparations without chemical fertilizers. In this case, increasing the number of active nodules on the roots of peas was accompanied by higher productivity, and the resulting effect was comparable with a half dose of mineral fertilizers recommended for cultivation of pea. Along with it, there was observed a fungicidal effect of bisolbisan reducing the development of diseases in plants.

The authors thank the scientific workers of the All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Grain Legumes and Cereal Crops (Orel) Naumkina T.S. and Vasil’chikova A.G. for assistance in performance of this research.


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Orlov State Agrarian University, Orel 302019, Russia
e-mail: pnv@orelsau.ru, nina_pril@mail.ru, svet-orl@yandex.ru

Received March 19, 2009