doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2020.1.174eng

UDC: 632.772:574.3(470.31)



A.S. Zeynalov

All-Russian Horticultural Institute for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, 4, ul. Zagor’evskaya, Moscow, 115598 Russia, e-mail (✉ corresponding author)

Zeynalov A.S.

Received July 13, 2019


Cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi (L. 1758) (DipteraTephritidae)) in Central non-Chernozem zone of Russia appeared in the late 1990th—early 2000th, which is associated with global warming and the significant expansion in the acreage of forage plants in this region. Due to ecological plasticity the fly has quickly adapted to local conditions of habitat, and annually flies in a large number. This paper is the first to investigate dates of the flight start, dynamics and duration depending on weather conditions, the periods of egg laying, hatching and feeding of larvae, terms of cocoon formation in soil, and also the peculiarities of the pest diapause under the conditions of Central non-Chernozem Russia. Damage of fruits in cherry varieties of different time of ripening was also assessed. Based on these data, effective methods for monitoring the phytophage are proposed. The studies were carried out in 2016-2018 in the cherry plantations of the All-Russian Horticultural Institute for Breeding, Agrotechnology andNursery (ARHIBAN, Moscow Province, Leninskii District, 55.47° n.l., 37.7° e.l., 124 m above sea level) on cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties of early (Sania, Bagryanaya), middle (Molodezhnaya, Volochaevka) and late (Malinovka, Apukhtinskaya) ripening periods. To the end, the research is targeted to improve monitoring methods, increase the efficiency and environmental safety of protective measures. The harsh conditions of the northern horticultural zone had a significant impact on the bioecology of the northern phytophage population. Depending on the weather conditions, the beginning and duration of flying, egg laying, hatching of larvae, and pupation vary greatly from year to year. The beginning of flies in different years was observed when the sum of effective temperatures (set) above 10 °С from 191.9 °C to 268.6 °C, with the difference in dates from 3 to 33 days; oviposition occurred at 227.4 °C to 285.1 °C, with the difference in dates to 27 days; hatching of larvae occurred at 290.3 °C to 347.1 °C, with the difference in dates from 2 to 24 days; the pupation occurred at 481.4 °C to 559.9 °C, with the difference in dates from 5 to 22 days. The feeding period of the larvae ranged from 18 to 26 days, and the imago flying period from 40 to 69 days. In the conditions if Central non-Chernozem Russia, both one-year and two-year diapauses R. cerasi are possible. In keeping larvae in special cages (under trees in the garden), after the first winter diapause, only 42.0 % of the overwintered individuals turned into adults. After the second winter diapause, those were 4.8 % of the initial number of larvae gone on diapause. In the third year, no flies were recorded. In two years, only 46.8 % of the individuals who went into diapause turned into adults, the rest died for various reasons. Also, the damage of cherry fruits varied from 7 % to 21 % for the early cultivars, from 38 % to 57 % for the middle-ripening cultivars, and from 61 % to 75 % for lthe ate-season maturing cultivars. Determination of R. cerasi phenophases based on calendar dates and phenophases of the host plant gives contradictory results in different years. Bilateral yellow glue traps combined with SET estimates and visual control of fruit ripening can improve R. cerasi monitoring to enable effective protective measures.

Keywords: insect, Diptera, Rhagoletis cerasi L., pest, bio-ecology, diapause, sum of effective temperatures.



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