doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2015.1.85eng

UDC 634.22:631.524.84/.85


R.Sh. Zaremuk

North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Orcharding and Viniculture, Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations, 39, ul. Pobedy, Krasnodar, 350901 Russia,

Received March 10, 2014

In perennial crops, particularly in plum trees, a genotypic (varietal) ecological plasticity as the ability to respond to external changes and anthropogenic factors is little studied. Plum tree is one of the most adaptive and wide spread fruit crop peculiar in its drought resistance, winter hardiness, high and sustainable fruit production. However, plum varieties significantly differ in valuable traits and ecological plasticity. Here we show the data on yield, fruit size and plasticity of differently originated plum varieties under conditions of four soil and climatic zones of Krasnodarskii krai. The data were obtained by statistical processing results of varietal testing. The main regional varieties Kabardinskaya rannyaya, Renklod Altana, Vengerka italianskaya, Anna Shpet, Vengerka azhanskaya and Tuley Gras were assessed. The role of the genotype in adaptation to environment indicated by fruit size and yield as an integrated parameters of the response to adverse condition was studied. In some varieties the yield varied from 18.0 до 50.0 centner per ha but did no exceed an average value for all varieties in each zone. Higher average yield for all zones was observed in Stenley variety at 165-170 centner per ha, in Anna Shpet variety at 115-145 centner per ha, in Kabardinskaya rannyaya variety at 130.4-147.9 centner per ha, and it was a little bit lower in Renklod Altana and Tuley Gras while the lowest in Vengerka azhanskaya and Vengerka italianskaya varieties. The yield was shown to be specific to genotype as a varietal biological peculiarity influencing the yield at 51.6 % rate, and also it depends on weather condition of the year with 28.7 % influence, and on their interaction at 17.2 % influence. Definite effects were shown for additional factors such as scheme of planting, type of crown, mineral nutrition, protection measures against diseases and pests. Fruit size was shown to be a varietal parameter closely related to the weather conditions and stresses during vegetation such as heat and water deficit at the phases of ovary and fruit formation and maturation. According to fruit size the rate of influence for weather, variety and their interaction was 41.6 %, 37.5 % and 20.8 %, respectively. Calculated regression coefficient b1 for the yield value was > 1, thus the tested plum varieties were characterized as intensive and responding to new technologies such as dense planting schemes, flattened crowns, integrated protection, etc. The Kabardinskaya rannyaya and Stenley plum varieties being the most plastic, adaptive and productive were selected as basic for commercial assortment of plum trees in the conditions of the southern gardening.

Keywords: fruit crops, plum, Prunus domestica, variety, genotype, plasticity, efficiency, stability, technology.


Full article (Rus)

Full text (Eng)




  1. Volkova L.V., Bebyakin V.M., Lyskova I.V. Doklady Rossiiskoi akademii sel'skokhozyaistvennykh nauk, 2010, 1: 3-5.
  2. Doroshenko T.N. Plodovodstvo s osnovami ekologii [Horticulture and its ecological bases]. Krasnodar, 2002.
  3. Zhuchenko A.A. Ekologicheskaya genetika kul'turnykh rastenii [Ecological genetics of cultivated plants]. Kishinev, 1980.
  4. Zhuchenko A.A. Adaptivnaya sistema selektsii rastenii (ekologo-geneticheskie osnovy): monografiya v dvukh tomakh [Adaptive system in plant breeding: ecological and genetic bases, a monograph. V. 1]. Moscow, 2001. Tom 1.
  5. Zhukov V.A., Svyatkina O.A., Dragavtseva I.A. Nauka Kubani, 1999, 7: 6-7.
  6. Kashin V.I. Nauchnye osnovy adaptivnogo sadovodstva [Scientific bases for adaptive horticulture]. Moscow, 1995.
  7. Pakudin V.Z., Lopatina L.M. Sel’skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya [Agricultural Biology], 1984, 4: 109-113.
  8. Zaremuk R.SH., Bogatyreva S.V. Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK, 2012, 5: 18-20.
  9. Bayer I. Interaktionen im Pollenschlauchwachstum zwischen Vuttersorte, Vatersorte und Temperatur. Erwerbsobstbau, 2001, 43(3): 70-76.
  10. Bayer I., Stösser R. Wirkung der Selbst- und Fremdbestäubung auf Fruchtansatz und Ertrag sowie Pollenschlauchwacstum bei Pflaumen und Zwetschen. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 2002, 44(4): 97-104.
  11. Bozovic D., Jacimovic V. Pomological-technological properties of plum cultivars grown in northern Montenegro. Vocarstvo, 2011, 45(175): 145-149.
  12. Cerovic R., Ruzi D., Micic N. Viability of plum ovules at different temperatures. Ann. Appl. Biol., 2000, 137(1): 53-59.
  13. Cosmulescu S., Baciu A., Cichi M. Phenologic changes in plum tree species in the context of current climate changes. Bul. Univ. Agr. Sci. and Vet. Med. Cluj-Napoca. Hort., 2008, 65(1): 510-515.
  14. Dragoyski K., Dinkova H., Spasova T. Growth and fruit-bearing performance of the plum cultivar Cacanska Lepotica grown in the region of the Central Balkan Mountains. Vocarstvo, 2005, 39(3): 271-277.
  15. Fischer M., Lieber B., Herzog U., Ernst I. Untersuchungen zur Scharka-Krankheit der Pflaume. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 2002, 44(4): 105-106.
  16. Nenadovic-Mratinic E., Milatovic D., Durovic D. Biološke osobine sorti šljive kombinovanih svojstava. Vocarstvo, 2007, 41(157-158): 31-35.
  17. Vitkovskii V.L. Plodovye rasteniya mira [Fruit trees of the world]. St. Petersburg, 2003 (ISBN 5-8114-0477-8).
  18. Swierczynski S., Stachowiak A. The usefulness of two rootstocks for some plum cultivars. J. Fruit. Ornam. Plant Res., 2009, 17(2): 63-71.
  19. Dospekhov B.A. Metodika polevogo opyta [Methods of field trials]. Moscow, 1979.
  20. Pakudin V.Z. V sbornike: Teoriya otbora v populyatsii rastenii [In: Theory of selection in plant population]. Novosibirsk, 1976: 178-189.
  21. Programma i metodika sortoizucheniya plodovykh, yagodnykh i orekhoplodnykh kul'tur [Program and methods for estimation of fruit, berry and nut crops]. Orel, 1999.